Saturday, August 15, 2009
In WikiAnswer.com said that A Muslim teacher is generally called a "mu-dar-ris" which comes from the "dars" meaning "lesson" so the "mu-dar-ris" is the one giving the lesson and the school is called the "mad-ra-sa". There are several other alternative words for Muslim teachers such as "'Ustaadh" or "Mu'allim" which are both derived from words related to "knowledge".
Four basic patterns of knowledge. Although they are not inclusive, they are the most important patterns needed for producing effective, creative and successful teachers:
a. Causal Knowledge
b. Normative Knowledge
c. Experiential Knowledge
d. General Knowledge
In addition to this, each of these having four sub-components. These are said to ‘represent the very basic talents, qualifications and characteristics needed to develop a successful and effective teacher’. They are:
a. Knowledge of the subject matter
b. Wealth in internalized values and beliefs
c. Ability of transferring knowledge
d. Generating student’s cooperation and confidence
Essentially, the call is for a true Muslim teacher to have moral values and professional knowledge and to be able to actualize these in daily life routines. They must be honest and sincere, and cultivate ‘faith in absolute values such as justice, mercy, truth, charity, love and righteousness, all of which are enshrined in the names of God’. They must be familiar with classroom management, curriculum management, records management, to use a variety of teaching strategies and an understanding of learning modes. They must have an awareness of each pupil’s background and motivate students raising their self-esteem. They are also effective in home-school liaison and have a reciprocal relationship with the administrative body.
In order to attain this in the Muslim student, the teacher is charged with competency. This essentially requires the teacher employed, to be proficient, effective and skilled in primarily the teaching of values and secondly in the specific field that he is being asked to teach. Teachers must have sufficient experience and training in the subject and be aware of development in that field. Along with this they must also be able to deliver the subject taking into account the different ability groups in the class and understanding the varied strategies of delivering the material. An understanding of a pupil’s learning style is also essential. A pupil must be given an environment that is positive for his or her personal development. By creating an atmosphere of approval the teacher sets the scene for success.
Other aspects of an Islamic school education include the provision of opportunities in physical education, languages, science, creativity and reasoning. However, all of these are delivered in such a way that there is no dichotomy between religion and so called secular knowledge:
An essential prerequisite is that religious and secular subjects should be made an indivisible whole. The compartmentalization of religious and secular education, based on a factitious division of life into spiritual and temporal, is not sanctioned by Islam. (Rauf, 1988, p. 63)
A Muslim teacher must therefore be one who follows this philosophy and tries to correlate the Islamic perspective with academic subjects that they teach.
The role of an Islamic school teacher can be best understood by firstly considering what the essential constituents of a competent Muslim teacher are. The Islamic Society of North America delivered a workshop on the qualities of an effective Muslim teacher. One of the accompanying handouts was entitled: ‘What a good Muslim teacher is all about’. The personal characteristics of a ‘good Muslim teacher’ as described in the ISNA handout were:
Love for children; love for the profession of education; humility without weakness; health and vitality of the body; psychological health and emotional balance; neatness, cleanliness and good appearance; eloquence and good pronunciation; intelligence and deep understanding; understanding students and their needs; strong command of the subject; broad and deep reading and knowledge; punctuality and respect for time; co-operation with the school system and policies; being courteous with students and fellow teachers; socialization with people and no isolation; knowledge and practice of Islam; to stay away from questionable sayings or deeds, even if it is lawful to do so; and sincerity. (ISNA handout, 1994)
This description is one that ISNA has proposed as its criteria for the hiring of Muslim teachers. The description calls for an adult who possesses an affinity for children. One who enjoys the rigors and challenges of teaching. Appearance, mannerisms and intellect are factors that are seen to contribute to what a ‘good Muslim teacher’ is. In addition to this, a teacher is asked to have the following ‘professional characteristics’:
Class control; respect for the student’s personality; involving the student in discussions and corrections; involving students in school activities; recognizing and dealing with individual differences; gradual reforming of student’s behavior depending on the situation; linking the lesson to lively practical applications; using fun and appropriate laughter; using the lecture style appropriately with the following considerations… using questions with the considerations to the following…(ISNA handout, 1994)
Baloch describes an Islamic teacher as one who educates a child ‘according to his level of maturity’. Such a teacher nurtures the child to have ‘faith in the One’ God, leading to the development of ‘a spirit of inquiry’ in order to procure an understanding of the universe and its operations. The pupil is then to ‘use his knowledge, skills, and understanding to improve himself and the society’, (Al-Afendi & Baloch, 1980, p. 165).
The purpose of an Islamic school and the role of an Islamic school teacher can also be presented by drawing on the early models of Islamic education and the teachers who were called upon to dispense knowledge to students:
...because of the inseparable bond between ‘Islam’ and ‘education’, the teacher in a Muslim society has to be a ‘committed’ teacher, and consequently ‘accountable’ to the society... a teacher’s harsh treatment of a child was quick to attract attention and the great educators like Ghazzali ... and Ibn Miskwayh ...advocated the use of rewards, recognition, and recreation (play) by the teacher to motivate learning, rather than any form of punishment. Ibn Khaldun explained how physical punishment was psychologically harmful and distorted the normal growth and development of the child. (Al-Afendi & Baloch, 1980, p. 169)
A number of points are raised in this extract. Firstly, a teacher in a Muslim society is answerable to the people. His or her actions and words are the target of scrutiny. Moreover, he or she must be a dependable and responsible person whose role does not end with the bell but continues even after school, implying that a teacher’s professional duty is one that extends to society. He or she must not be seen to engage in any questionable activities.
There is also a point made that a teacher should not be severe and resort to punishing the child but use strategies involving positive reinforcement and also appreciate the value of play as a means of learning and providing the student with a motivating learning environment.
Shami raises the point that Muslim teachers who are trained in colleges and other professional institutions based on models from the West are not equipped to deal effectively with delivering an Islamic education to a Muslim child. This, he says is because such an institution does not cater for the spiritual development of the child. He calls for a teacher who is ‘responsible for the development of the soul ... the mind and body’, (Baloch & Afendi, 1980, p. 155). The implication may then be that teachers who are trained at the latter institutions should be given opportunities for Islamic development that will allow them to cater for the ‘mind and body’ of the student.
In one of his addresses on the topic of a new education system, Mawdudi once said:
If you teach history, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, zoology, astronomy, economics, political science and other social sciences without any reference to Allah ... a student will be unable to synthesize the conflicting ideologies into a unifying whole. Because of this intellectual polarization, his religious faith gradually weakens. Under the circumstances, he cannot remain totally committed to religion, however strong his faith may be. (Rauf, 1988, p. 64)
This can be used to further highlight the necessity for a Muslim teacher to put subjects in the context of Islam. If subjects are not Islamized, the indication is that the resulting pupil, through not viewing God to be the author and controller, assigns the latter to something other than God. He will therefore suffer a weakness in faith. Mawdudi also believes that students should consolidate their knowledge in Qur’anic Studies and thereafter ‘be offered a course in comparative religion so that they can assess for themselves how mankind went astray’. (Rauf, 1988, p. 67)
There is also the point that ‘the most important quality of a Muslim teacher is not what he knows but what he is’, (Baloch & Affendi, 1980, p. 157). The emphasis is placed on the character of the teacher. The teachers must be exposed to exemplary behaviour on which to fashion themselves. Presumably this would come from the teacher training institutions in the first instance and then the leadership body within a school.
It is also important for an Islamic school, especially those that exist in non-Muslim countries to provide students with an understanding of their role and obligations not only to the Muslims who reside around them but also towards the non-Muslims. It is important that Islamic schools exude through their students the same neighbourliness towards the non-Muslim that Muhammad (sws) practiced and taught.
Hashim also agrees that the Muslim teacher is not just a professional worker but is also a mu’addib who concerns himself with instilling adab, (manners) in their students:
A teacher in the Islamic tradition is also a guide to leading pupils to the righteous path. Consequently, the excellence of a teacher in Islam is not only measured by his or her faith, beliefs, character and conducts. This notion of a teacher in Islam is a very important consideration in the preparation of teachers for an Islamic school system. (Hashim, 1997, p. 58)
The purpose of an Islamic school is essentially to create an environment that reflects an Islamic ideology. It is warm, embracing, encouraging and its decor redirects its inhabitants towards God remembrance and good actions. The role of an Islamic school teacher is to then produce a wholesome child who carries out his obligations as set out by the precepts of Islam. The teacher’s directive is to educate a child by giving him or her the mannerisms and the etiquette that will serve the child and the community: To ultimately make the child understand the purpose of his life and to provide that child with knowledge that will equip him/her to pursue both worldly gains and most importantly after-life gains. Such a child does not feel coerced, stifled or imprisoned but feels motivated, free and eager.
1. Al-Afendi, M.H. & Baloch, N.A. (1980), Curriculum and Teacher Education,
2. Al-Attas, S. N. (1979), Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education,
4. Hashim, R, The Construction of an Islamic based-teacher Education Programme. Muslim Education Quarterly. vol. 14, winter 97, pp. 57-68.
5. Rashid, H.M, Some Critical Issues in the Socialization and Education of African American Muslims, Muslim Education Quarterly. pp. 19-26
6. Rauf. S.M.A. (1988), Mawdudi on Education,
7. Sharif, M.M. (1976), Islamic and Educational Studies,
By: Muhammad Baqir Qarashi
The ancient Muslim educationists adopted a special method of teaching that promotes the recipients of knowledge. The following are some articles of the teaching methods:
Teachers ought to treat their pupils leniently and kindly and avoid any tension and cruelty since these two things impede the mental growth and author serious psychological complexes. Ibn Khuldun says, “Tensional teaching injures the pupils, especially the children and the harshly educated.”
Pupils of irregular behavior and negligence should be disciplined if they ignore the advice. The ancient Muslim teachers used to beat and detain even the kings’ sons. Abu Merriam, the educator of al-Amin and al-Mamun*, caned them so harshly that one’s arm was injured. Before his father, the boy showed his hand, and the teacher was summoned. “What for did Mohammed –al-Amin- complain you?” asked ar-Rashid. “He is full of naivete and slyness,” answered the teacher. The caliph then said, “You may kill him! His death is better than being dull.”
In his instructions to al-Ahmer, one of his sons’ educators, ar-Rashid said, “You should first reform him by means of kindness and lenience. If he refuses, then you should use tension and coarse.”
Fathers used to say to the educators of their sons, “Your share is the flesh while ours is the bones.”
Beating and tormenting were the most important means of education. This is incorrect indeed since it is undecided to Islam that regards mercy, kindness, and lenience as the most matters on which education should settle. All of the crooked ways should be avoided in the educational processes. Teachers should not exceed in disciplining the irregular and deviant pupils since it creates mental complexes and impedes the maturity and prosperity of education and personality. Ibn Khuldoun says, “If the educator uses coercion, this will distress the pupil and confine his delighted spirit and urge on indolence and lead to lie and malignancy for avoiding more coercion. In addition, this coercion will teach the pupil trickery and fraud, and the pupil may take them as customs and qualities forever. The educator, whether teacher or father, should not exaggerate in disciplining the sons.” The Prophet (s) said, “Teach without chiding. Teachers are preferable to the scolders.” Ibn Quteiba said, “Teachers are recommended not to use tension or pride.”
Teachers are compared to the compassionate father. It is said, “Teachers are the substitutes of fathers.” It is also said, “Teachers ought to care for the students’ interests and treat them like the dearest sons with kindness, courtesy, benevolence, and patience on probable alienation. Teachers should apprise of their flaws by means of advice and sympathy, not chiding and crudeness.” Al-Qabisi, one of the master educators of the fourth century –of Hegira-, was asked whether it is recommended for teachers to use coarseness or lenience with students, he answered, “Disciplining should never occupy the good teachers’ lenience and mercy to the pupils. Teachers are the substitutes of their fathers. It is discommended for teachers to be always frowning. This will make the pupils disrespect them.”
Teachers’ roughness originates mental troubles and leads to the students’ refusing the lessons.
Muslim educationists believe that the insinuative rebuke should be within the teaching methods in case pupils show irregular behavior or imperfect work since this method is more impressive than expression. They said, “Teachers who notice an irregularity or a crooked behavior should not state it directly to the pupils. They should insinuate within their common speech by referring to the disadvantages of such a behavior. This will achieve the intended convention.”
This method, in fact, is more useful than direct reproach, which may lead to rebellion and insistence on the wrong. Islam has asserted this topic in the fields of education and teaching. It is related that Imams al-Hassan and al-Hussein, the grandsons of the Prophet, once noticed an old man perform the ritual ablution incorrectly. They avoided stating to him directly; hence, they agreed on making him the arbiter who should rule of the most accurate ablution. As they performed the ablution before him, the old man said, “O masters! You both have performed the very accurate ablution, but it seems that the old man can master nothing.”
Islam has adopted this necessary practice since it saves the deviant from irregularity and aberrance and takes him back to the truth and right. Educationists said, “The pupil that is not amended by insinuative impression, owing to lack of understanding and perception, secret expression and frank warning should be used. If this method is unsuccessful, the teacher may warn openly and reproach. If this is also unsuccessful, the teacher then may dismiss and leave the pupil till he
THE LEARNERS’ MANNERS
Muslim educationists have been greatly concerned with the learners’ affairs. They constituted the considerable methods that aim at disciplining and acquiring the virtuous ethics and noble manners.
- Learners should seek knowledge for God’s sake purely, neglecting any worldly interest or valueless purpose. God will surely raise the respects of such learners, facilitate the difficulties, grant perception and intelligence, and combine the welfare of this world and the Hereafter.
- Learners should carry out the religious instructions and precepts as well as the noble morals and ritual practices. They should fear God in their hiddens as well as their appearances and purify their hearts against discommended qualities such as envy, ostentation, pride, and arrogance since these characters are the vilest and the most unassuming. An educationist says, “Prayers are invalid without extrinsic purification. Likewise, heart worship that is seeking knowledge is invalid unless the hearts are purified from ill manners and immoral qualities. Knowledge is not the abundance of narration. It is an illumination that is cast in hearts.”
- Learners should enjoy self-possession and sedateness. The Prophet (s) said, “Seek knowledge and convey to people. Use composure, tranquility, and modesty to those from whom you learn and those to whom you convey. Do not be the despotic of knowledge.” Imam as-Sadiq said, “Seek knowledge and use self-possession, composure, and modesty to those from whom you learn. Do not be the despotic of knowledge, otherwise the wrong will remove your right.” Students of such perfect moralities will naturally be the exemplars of others and influence positively in the people’s behavior and ethics.
- Learners should exert all efforts for seeking knowledge since it is not inspirational. Knowledge is acquirable. It depends upon the scope of the efforts that lead to obtaining scientific fortune. Learners should respect time as well as their lessons. Any tardiness will waste the classes and cause the teachers’ carelessness.
- Learners should not exaggerate in studying lest their powers and energy will be exhausting and the mental maturity be impeded. It is essential for learners to have sufficient time for rest and physical relaxation. Men should regard the rights of their bodies. Al-Ghezali said, “It is essential to give the pupils sufficient time for acceptable amusement and relaxation after the fatigue of teaching. Preventing the pupils from entertainment after the exhausting teaching will deaden their hearts stupefy their minds. This will also cause a life disturbance and oblige them to look for trickeries for the sake of getting rid of such a disturbance.”
- Learners should not ask rigor questions otherwise they lose prosperity owing to disrespecting the knowledge and dishonoring the teachers whose approval should precede everything else.
- Learners should respect their teachers who should enjoy rights that are preferable to the fathers. Ashafii said, “I used to reverence my teacher, Malik, to the degree that I skimmed over the books so slightly so that he will not hear the sounds of the papers.” Learners should also esteem their teachers in their presence or absence, use various styles of honoring and veneration, neglect using their names, and stand their flaws and roughness. Ashafii reported, “People informed Sufian bin Uyeina that some people, who had come from distant districts, would leave him because of his harshness.” He said, “They are surely ignorant if they leave their advantages because of my ill manners.” Learners should also be in the class before their teachers, sit in front of them, not lean to a wall or a pad, and not turn the back before them. All these affairs contradict the teachers’ rights. They should also listen heedfully to their teachers and save them against repeating the teaching materials. Moreover, learners should avoid yawning, eructing, laughing, mocking, or practicing any deed that dishonors the teachers.
- Learners should not combine two subjects of study at the same time, lest their minds will be exceedingly disturbed. Ibn Khuldoun says, “Learners must not mix two matters of knowledge at the same time, lest they will be too deficient to obtain any of them since this causes mind confusion and leaning to one on the account of the other.”
- Learners should not associate with other than the hard-working students so that they receive the good behaviors. It is said that the social life is influential and being influenced. Each individual gives and takes from the surroundings. Lazy and slender individuals will surely convey their qualities to their associates.
- Primary learners should not involve themselves in discrepancies and ambiguous opinions of the master scholars especially in conceptual theses, lest these variant opinions will weaken their mentalities and natures.
- Learners should not move to another lesson before they master the earlier. Negligence will surely cause tardiness and skillessness.
Reference : http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=3306
The ancient Muslim educationists referred to a number of qualities and responsibilities that the teachers should apply on their teaching life. These qualities may participate in making the teachers the noble exemplars and achieving the prosperity of education and teaching for creating a generation of equanimity and good manners. The following is an exposition of these qualities:
Teachers should offer their disciplinary activities for God’s sake. Their acts must aim at reforming the Muslim young generations. They should avoid thinking of riches or positions. Deviation is the inevitable fate of any teacher that intends to gain good livelihood or high positions through his missions. Sufian bin Uyeina says, “I had been gifted the understanding of the Quran, but when I received those riches from Abu Jafar I lost the understanding totally.”
Teachers should be of extraordinary faith in God the Exalted, and should perform the rituals for showing the Islamic norms and destroying the seditious. They should also acquire noble traits so that God will cast understanding in their minds. Ibn Masud said, “Knowledge is not the abundance of narration. It is an illumination that God casts in minds.”
Teachers should avoid humble professions, such as cupping or tanning, during the rest hours.
Teachers should clean their bodies and practice the other ablutionary activities such as clipping the nails and avoiding malodors.
Teachers should economize in their clothing, food, and lodging. Ashafii said, “I have not been saturated for sixteen years.”
Teachers should keep themselves away from the ruling authorities as much as possible. Al-Awzaii said, “Nothing is more hateful to God than the scholars’ visiting the viziers.”
Teachers should copy the virtuous and pious men among the Prophet’s companions and their followers.
Teachers should be concerned with the serviceable knowledges and avoid the useless and disputable.
Teachers should be concerned with the knowledges that take to the affairs of the Hereafter. Shaqiq al-Belkhi asked his student, Hatem al-Asem about the questions he had learned. “How long have you been with me?” asked the teacher. “They have been thirty three years,” answered the student. “What have you learned all these years?” asked the teacher. “I have learnt eight questions,” replied the student. The teacher expressed his sorrow and said, “I have finished my years with you, but you have learnt eight things only!” “That is it,” expressed the student, “ I do not want to lie.” “Well,” said the teacher, “Let me hear.” “They are the fondness of the good deeds, shoving the caprices away, decency and god-fearing, befriending the right, antagonizing the devil, adhering to obedience, leaving the humiliation of seeking earnings to people, and depending on God,” counted the student. The teacher expressed his great admiration and esteem and said, “O Hatem! God may prosper you. As I looked in the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms, and the Quran, I found these eight questions be the pivot of these Books.”
Teachers should not engage themselves in positions higher than their abilities until they accomplish their profession and grant the certificate of master teachers. As-Shibli says, “He whoever has the front before attaining suitability is meeting his shame.”
Teachers should discipline the pupils with their accounts and deeds in addition to words and admonition.
Teachers should love their pupils and guard them against harm. Abu Abbas said, “The most respectful -for me- is my student who leaves all people to come to me. I protect him to the degree that I exert my efforts for preventing even the flies from reaching him.”
Teachers should pardon and acquit the pupils who make mistakes. They should use intimation in attracting their attentions to their faults. If they do not conceive, teachers then may state the fault openly. Then comes the reproach. The Prophet (s) said, “Teach without chiding. Teachers are preferable to the scolders.” He also said, “Use leniency to those whom you teach and those who learn you.”
Teachers should welcome the attendant pupils and ask about the absent.
Teachers should not answer questions they ignore. They may confess they do not know. Ibn Masud said, “O people! He, whoever is familiar with something, should say it, otherwise he should say: Allah is the most knowledgeable. This saying is a part of knowledge.”
Teacher should realize the levels of the pupils and offer to them according to their understandings. They should intimate to the smart, elucidate for others, and repeat for the unintelligent.
Teachers should refer to the unchanging rules and the exceptions of the materials they teach. They should also urge them on working and ask them to repeat the matters they had to memorize, and chide the negligent and praise the good retainers. They should also ask them for testing their understandings and order them of moderation especially when signs of physical or mental fatigue are shown. They should recommend the bored ones of rest and relaxation.
Teachers should not ask for intolerable matters that do not fit the students’ minds and age. They should not ask the students of reading books that are mentally unattainable. They should test before referring to a subject to be perceived. After test, teachers may refer to books that accord the pupils’ minds. They should not engage the pupils with several subjects at the same time.
Teachers should not teach when they are annoyed or complaining an illness, hunger, or anger since these states may harm the students and themselves.
Teachers should neither prolong nor shorten the lessons unacceptably. Likewise, they should neither raise nor reduce their voices inadequately.
Teachers should allot certain times to receiving the scope of the pupils’ memorized items. In the ancient times, teachers allotted Wednesday night and Thursday morning to recalling. Friday was the day off.
Teachers should treat the pupils equally and avoid any sort of discrimination. The Prophet is reported to say, “Teachers who have three students- of different social classes- and do not treat them equally, will be in the line of the traitors on the Resurrection Day.”
Teachers should supervise the pupils’ tendencies and mental desires so that the suitable subject is chosen. They should lead the pupils who seek another subject to the correct direction. Avecinna says, “Not every desired profession is possible and attainable for boys. They should be fit enough for conforming it. If all of the professions and knowledges were responsive, none would lack arts and professions, and people would have the same arts and professions or the opposite. Wardens who intend to select a profession for the wards should first test the nature and suitability. Hence, professions should be selected on the bases of suitability and capability.”
Teachers should reward the hard-working pupils and praise them before the mates. Ibn Maskub said, “Pupils should be praised and rewarded for any good manner and favorable act they show.”
Teachers should be accurate in treating the pupils. They should count their breaths and account their entire movements and activities.
The desires of seeking knowledge should be evolved in the pupils’ minds. Teachers should refer to the most significant matters that advance them and their societies plentifully. Pupils will surely pursue knowledge resolutely if this noble tendency is sewn in their minds and, consequently, the conceptual and scientific life will be prosperous in the country.
Because they applied those programs, the teachers of the early eras of Islam could produce those virtuous generations of such high traits and perfect maturity, and achieve the most remarkable scientific renaissance the sparks of which have covered all of the ages.
Refer to the following reference books from which these qualities are quoted:
Ibn Abdun’s al-Wathiqa: 213.
Malik’s al-Mudewwana: 4/26.
An-Nawawi’s Tedribur-rawi: 128.
Al-Gezali’s Ihiaul-ulum (Disciplining of moralities): 3/62.
Ibn Jumaa’s Tethkiretus-sami: 30.
al-Bekri’s Nudumul-qilada: 99.
Ibn Arabi’s Adabul-muridin: 3.
Educational cognizance: 48.
Thursday, April 30, 2009
Tuan Razak adalah fasilitator yang kami jemput dari unit Pencegahan Dadah dan Disiplin, PPD Kuala Selangor. Personalitinya yang tegas dalam serba serbi amat sesuai dengan jawatan yang dipegangnya kini.
Para peserta sedang khusyuk mendengar ceramah yang disampaikan oleh beliau. `Ciri-Ciri Seorang Pemimpin' merupakan tajuk pilihan beliau.
Pengisian rohani juga tidak disisihkan....
Ustaz Yazid sedang meyampaikan kuliah subuh. Di zaman Sains dan teknologi ini, kuliah subuh lebih berkesan disampaikan menggunakan peralatan ICT dan multimedia. Canggih tuuuu.....
Tuan Mustafa atau lebih dikenali sebagai Tuan Bob sedang melayan para peserta menyelesaikan tugasan yang telah diberikan kepada mereka.
Apalah yang sedang diperkatakan oleh Tuan Razak kepada para peserta tuuu??? . Aiii.... macam bagi rasuah jee... Takkk lah... Itu ialah ganjaran diberi setelah kumpulan tersebut dapat menyelesaikan tugasan.